Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is a paracrine protein encoded by the HGF gene. HGF gene is present on chromosome 7. HGF is motility, cellular growth, and morphogenic factor. Even though HGF is a part of the plasminogen subfamily of S1 peptidase, it does not have any protease activity. HGF is a single inactive polypeptide, and serine proteases cleave it into a 69-kilodalton α-chain and 34-kilodalton β-chain. A disulfide bond formed between the αβ-chain creates an active heterodimeric protein.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a.k.a. scatter factor, is a protein that is critical for the development of several tissues and organs. It plays an important role early in embryonic development and also in wound healing and tissue regeneration. HGF is found throughout the body, but it is produced primarily by mesenchymal cells – a type of cell identified by its ability to migrate into tissues around it. Mesenchymal cells are involved in the formation of connective tissue, including bone marrow stroma, cartilage, tendon, muscle and fat.
HGF (hepatocyte growth factor, also known as scatter factor) is a key mediator of the epithelial mesenchymal interactions and tissue remodeling that are essential for embryonic development, organ regeneration and normal wound healing. In pathologic conditions, aberrant HGF expression may contribute to tumorigenesis and tumor progression. This review summarizes the current knowledge of structure biological activities of HGF in normal and neoplastic cells. We all know that protein is an important component in our bodies. We get proteins from the foods we eat and they help us build up our muscles. Proteins are made of amino acids, which are also important in carrying out many functions in our body. Proteins also help our immune system fight off diseases.
The biomarker is alpha and beta interferons, alpha 2. Interferon alpha 2 is a human cytokine encoded by the IFNA2 gene on chromosome 9. It belongs to the type I interferon family. Cells with viral infection secrete interferon alpha 2 and help other cells inhibit viral attack. Alpha and beta interferons are naturally occurring proteins that boost the immune system’s defenses against viruses. They do this by interfering with virus replication, inhibiting viral protein production and controlling the expression of genes associated with innate immunity. Because they stop the growth of cancer cells, they’re used to treat a variety of tumors and diseases.
Alpha and beta interferons refers to the human cytokine encoded by the IFNA2 gene. IFNA2 gene is present on chromosome 9. IFNα 2 belongs to the type I IFN family. Cells with viral infection secrete IFNα 2 and help other cells inhibit viral attack. In 1957, Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann first described IFNs as a viral replication interfering agent. Type I IFN family has 13 α subtypes, out of which IFNα 2 was the very first subtypes scientists had successfully characterized in the 1980s. Therefore, researchers have widely studied IFNα 2 and the alpha interferon function to understand type I IFN family structure and mechanisms. As a result, the pharmaceutical industry also produced IFNα 2 as the first IFN drug, making it a well-known type I IFN family subtype.