Every year, around 1.3 million vehicles are sent to Spain for scrapping, generating an average of 800 kg of scrap per unit. To these must be added the million tons of parts and spare parts, with a total of around 800,000 tons. Some waste that the regulations, both national and European, consider dangerous and that previously accumulated in the so-called “cemeteries” of cars. A sad image that settled in the vicinity of our roads and that, fortunately, is now being forgotten.
With the entry into force of RD 1383/2002, on the management of vehicles at the end of their useful life, whose main purpose is to reduce the impact of vehicles on the environment, work is being done on three fronts: Skrotpriser manufacturers and users .
As for the manufacturers, as has been seen,
They must limit the use of dangerous substances in the manufacture of vehicles, as well as facilitate the dismantling and recycling of their components. Users are required to deposit their vehicles in authorized treatment centers for decontamination and recycling.
Regarding the scrappers, this entails the transformation of car cemeteries into modern facilities whose purpose is to recover and recycle as much of the vehicle as possible, appearing those known as CAT (Authorized Vehicle Treatment Center at the end of its useful life) .
As can be seen in the image above, the materials that make up the car are mainly metals (ferrous and non-ferrous), plastics, glass and tires. All these elements, duly separated, are almost 100% recyclable, which, after going through the appropriate treatments, are incorporated again into the manufacturing processes of new components.
The following graph shows the recycling process of a vehicle from the moment it is received by the CAT to the foundry, where new materials are obtained. For scrap from parts and spare parts, the process is the same, overlapping some steps, in some cases.
To make it easier to understand, the steps are transcribed below:
Used Vehicles 480×321
1) Reception of vehicles: arrival of vehicles for scrapping, at the recycling center.
2) Administrative check: it is checked if the vehicle can be treated and written off (if it has pending fines, is confiscated,). If everything is in order, the certificate of destruction is delivered and the cancellation is processed.
3) Decontamination: liquids (oils, antifreeze, fuel,) and elements (batteries, tyres) dangerous for the environment are removed. This waste goes to industrial waste management companies.
4) Disassembly of reusable components: reusable elements (engine, fenders, bumpers, gearboxes, mirrors, shock absorbers, radiators, etc.) are removed, classified and stored. Private buyers and mechanical workshops acquire the recovered part they need.
5) Pressing: what remains (carcass) in a few seconds is reduced by a press to a block of scrap, which usually measures 1×0.5×0.5 m.
6) Fragmentation plant: the packets arrive at the fragmentation machines. After carrying out a radioactive analysis, the metals (iron, copper, aluminums,) are crushed and separated from the light fragmentation residues (glass, rubber,). The metal scrap goes to the foundry (obtaining new materials) and the rest is eliminated through other recovery processes or simply deposited in controlled landfills.